India has made great strides in the last two decades to boost social capital and create the conditions for sustainable economic growth, but social disorganisation theory says that India’s current model of governance is doomed to fail.
In a new paper, researchers from the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) and the Centre for Advanced Studies in Social Policy (CASSP) say that social capital cannot be achieved without governance reforms.
Social disorganisations are complex phenomena that arise in societies and involve people’s interactions, decisions and behaviour, all of which are shaped by cultural, economic, social and political factors.
In India, social disorgies include political disorganizations, institutional disorganies and economic disorganizes, said the authors of the paper.
Social capital theory, also known as social diseconomy, states that when people interact in ways that are socially disorganised, social capital does not exist, because it is not generated by the social interactions, nor is it able to be mobilized and directed towards the public good.
The social disentanglement is caused by people’s interaction and the fact that the people are not able to communicate, the authors say.
Social scientists believe that the mechanisms of social disorder are poorly understood and have not been comprehensively investigated in terms of their underlying causes.
They say that the causes of social disorder are complex and the causes are likely to be different from one country to another.
In the case of India, it is the country’s history of colonialism and its current social division of labour, as well as the legacy of a long-standing system of caste-based systems, that have created the problems, the researchers said.
The authors say that while there are many social disordering mechanisms that are present in India today, the existing theory on how they can be addressed does not address them all.
This paper, titled ‘Social capital is a complex phenomenon’, is the first to address the social dis-organization as a complex social phenomenon, the report said.
While many experts are arguing about the role of social capital in economic development, a key finding of the authors is that social disordered institutions can cause a substantial disruption in economic growth.
The authors suggest that the solution to this problem lies in a more inclusive and inclusive governance system.
Social unrest and the formation of new social disunions has occurred across the world.
In a report published in April, the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the World Economic Forum (WEF) all identified the need to tackle social disorders, including social disordinance.
A report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in December also found that more than a third of countries surveyed had experienced an increase in social discomforts, including poor health, violence, discrimination and poverty.